Our Shastras are reservoir of knowledge on the various aspects of life. They contain conceptual frame
work and also practical guidelines for the realization of bliss, harmony and peace in our everyday life.
The purport of Shrutis is aptly summed up in the following Sloka:
Thus, the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Smritis have very profound relevance even in the
modern times. If only we try to derive the messages of this literature in a proper perspective and in a
manner applicable to the challenges of our contemporary society, we would be able to appreciate their
relevance and utility.
This Seminar on “Work Culture and Efficiency – Lessons from Ancient Philosophy and
Psychology” is a commendable exercise aimed at providing an insight into the ancient Shastric wisdom
in the framework of conceptual, theoretical and practical analysis. Our Shastras provide an insightful
theory of the determinants of human behaviour. The following sloka of Bhagavadgita is pertinent
Essentially, human behaviour is the result of the interaction between (Indriyas), (Mind) and
(Intellect). The sense organs come in contact with the objects in the universe and generate thought
processes. Mind becomes the venue of the conflict of all types of thought processes – good and bad,
virtuous and evil. The intellect provides the flow of reasoning to settle the conflict of thoughts. In this
context we should understand the meaning, scope and functions of Indriyas, Manas and Buddhi. Further
we should also analyse the question as to how one should influence the functions of Indriya, Manas and
Buddhi, in such a way that the final outcome of behaviour takes the desired pattern and content. In other
words, the work culture of the individuals is governed by the nature of their Indiryas, Manas and Buddhi
and their interactions. Thus, it should be possible to derive efficiency in the work culture of the
individuals by adopting suitable methods for influencing Indriyas, Manas and Buddhi. This approach to
the challenge of enhancing efficiency in work places is much more fundamental and effective than the
analysis available in the modern treatises on management.
This National Seminar has brought together both the traditional and the modern scholars to
exchange their perceptions on the different doctrines of human behaviour. The Seminar has had
presentations on very interesting and diverse themes such as Prabhakar doctrine of Indriyas, Buddhist
reflections, Dwaitic perception of Indriyas, Manas and Jnanendriyas in Kashmir Saivism,
Nyaya-Vaiseshika theory of work culture and modern thoughts on work culture.
I am sure that this volume based on the deliberations of the seminar, provides an innovative
framework for analyzing the challenges of realizing an efficient work culture in the contemporary
I would like to compliment once again Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati for
organizing this Seminar for providing a forum for discussions on the fusion of traditional and modern
thoughts on work culture and efficiency. In particular, I should express our gratitude to Prof. Arindam
Chakrabarti, Professor of Philosophy, University of Hawai, USA, who was visiting Professor at
Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati during 2003-04 for conceiving this unique Seminar.
My words of appreciation to Prof. D. Prahlada Char, Vice-Chancellor, Rashtriya Sanskrit
Vidyapeetha, Tirupati and Prof. M.L. Narasimha Murthy who was the co-ordinator of this Seminar.
I hope that the contents of this volume would be found useful by the students and scholars of
“A clever charioteer restrains the horses of the chariot by intelligently holding the reins. In a similar
manner one can bring the senses under control through proper discrimination (Vijnana) and the
employment of will-force (Manas)”. –Kathopanishad.
For several millennia, the civilized sections of the world have been in an incessant pursuit to
understand the nature of the invisible life-principle behind the visible universe. India, the Peninsular of
Letters, has all through the ages been in the fore-front of such Knowledge-seeking communities. As a
result, several sophisticated systems of philosophy like Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya. Vaiseshika,
Purvamimamsa and Uttaramimamsa, that accept the validity of the Vedas in theorizing their principles,
and Jainism and Buddhism with non-Vedic logical strength, emerged in this land. All these systems
irrespective of their ways and means of approach emphasize the single goal, namely, the realization of
the Ultimate Reality.
The theories identifying, determining and directing the functions, facets and features of the
two sets of organs namely, the tols of human action and the tols of cognition (karmendriya and
jnanendriya) : have been, through ages, well analyzed in all theistic and atheistic systems of Indian
Philosophy in a very clear manner. The philosophical and psychological aspects of these theories are
very interesting and generate curiosity in the inquirers.
Efficiency in Resource utilization is an underscored phrase in the modern times as the
prerequisite of the economic development and social transformation of Indian society. Capital,
technology, infrastructure, government policies, institutions, higher professional education etc. are
usually belived by all as the influencing factors of the level of economic efficiency in a society. But
one essential fact is ignored that ‘efficiency’ is the final outcome of human behavior at the individual
level and at the collective level. ‘Efficiency’ is essentially the result of ‘work culture’, at the individual
level and the latter in turn, is determined by the interactions of the sense organs, internal organs and
intellect. The ancient Indian disciplines of psychology and philosophy give us a good length of
discussion to analyze these determinants of human behavior. Hence length of discussion to analyze
these determinants of human behavior. Hence the ‘Motor organs’ and ‘Sense-organas’ the tools of
action and cognition of the human body-mind complex cover the central theme of the National seminar
on Work Culture and efficiency : Lessons from Ancient Indian Psychology and Philosophy.
The seminar, organized by the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha in collaboration with ICSSR,
New Delhi was guided at every stage by our Honourable Chancellor, Dr. V.R. Panchamukhi who is also
the Chairman of the ICSSR. The Vidyapeetha remains ever indebted to our Hon’able Chancellor whose
keen interest and constant guidance in all the activities is a source of strength. The name of the
distinguished visiting professor Dr. Arindam Chakrabarty, Professor, Department of Philosophy,
University of Hawai at Manoa, Hawaii, U.S.A. needs special mention in this context, who helped us in
planning and as well in organizing the seminar in a fruitful manner.
Scholars from Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi, Pune, Lucknow, Chennai, Bangalore, Pondicherry,
Visakhapatnam, Orissa and other places representing the most prestigious academic agencies of our
nation such as University of Delhi, Indian Council of Social Science Research, Centre for Advenced
study in Sanskrit of University of Pune, National Institute of Advanced Studies in the Indian Institute of
Science campus of Bangalore, Indian Instituter of Management of Kolkata, Benaras Hindu University,
Madras Sanskrit College, French Institute of indology, Central University of Hyderabad, Utkal
University. Jadavpur University etc., have significantly contributed to the success of this seminar. We
are ever thankful to them for them for their inspiring participation.
According to a traditional anecdote Vyasa stated and Jaimini corrected it as Jaimini might
not have proved the veracity of his statement. But, here, all the scholars have proved it through their
critical investation of the theme leaving a powerful message to the fruit-aspirants of this seminar.
The Cream of the literati participated in the seminar have discussed the various theories with
regard to the sense organs, work culture and efficiency and brought out the essence of them, for the
benefit of inquirers. We hope that the contributions of the scholars, recorded here, will help for further
persuit in the area.
I heartly congratulate Dr. M.L. Narasimha Murthy, Professor of Advaita Vedanta and Dr.
Rani Sadasiva Murty, Lecturer in Sahitya, Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha for their dedicated efforts in
organising the seminar and also in bringing out the Proceedings of the Seminar in an excellent
Send as free online greeting card
Email a Friend