India being one of South Asia’s biggest countries, is home to a diverse range of cultures, religions, languages and traditions. These cultural aspects are also dictated by the region they belong to. The Ganga-Yamuna Doab, the Middle Ganga Valley, the Northern Deccan, Andhra, Kalinga and the Tamil plains are the main regions of the Indian subcontinent. There are however some smaller regions in the Indian subcontinent that also hold great importance. They are Konkan, Kanara and Chattisgarh. Then there are others that are known for their agricultural potential, namely, the Raichur Doab between Krishna and Tungabadra and Vengi between Godavari and Krishna.
The Gangetic Plains
Due to its high agricultural produce and rich population, the Ganga plains are known to be a dominant force in the Indian subcontinent. This region holds great historical value as it accounts for the emergence of the notions of territories and territorial kingdoms (rastras and janapadas). For the first time in history, the janapadas and mahajanapadas were mentioned in contemporary Indian literature. This brought about many social, economic and political changes. These concepts came into existence in the Middle Ganga valley during the Mauryan period. These state societies used Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism as a form of social instruction.
The Tamil Country
Early Tamil poem anthologies, cumulatively, known as Sangam literature portray an elaborate picture of the evolution of state society in the Tamil country (Tamilakam) from a ministerial-tribal lifestyle. They display the co-existence of various ecological regions of the Tamilakam. The procedures of state formation were dictated by:
The Roman trade during the early Christian centuries
The increase in townships
The infiltration of the Northern Sanskritic (Aryan) cultures into the Brahmana culture
Kerala played a vital role in the Tamilakam during its early period. Various hilly chieftaincies and marginal agricultural sectors were assimilated into the sphere of the three kingdoms. In a social aspect, peasants were reduced to the Shudra status.
The Deccan: Andhra and Maharashtra
In the Deccan region, Megalithic communities that followed Neolithic-Chalcolithic cultures formed the base for the transformation of these regions. Their burial sites have accounted for:
rudimentary craft specialisation,
a rudimentary exchange network, which transported mineral resources to the Northern Deccan
The arrival of the Mauryas and the Megalithic culture brought about the emergence of early historical settlements in this region. This led to the formation of many urban centres and monasteries in this region, which in turn, led to the emergence of localities which were parallel to the North Indian janapadas. It was advanced further under the Ikshvakus in coastal Andhra, the Kadambas in Karnataka and the Vakatakas in Maharashtra.
Kalinga and Ancient Orissa
The deltaic coast littoral zone transformed to the historical stage earlier than the inner forest tracts and rolling uplands, which share many similarities with the adjoining Chhattisgarh and Bastar sub-regions. Central and western Orissa's tribal situation accounted for the region's stalled and uneven transformation process. The massive aggregation of tribals and the land's physiography prevented a repeat of the Gangetic social and economic pattern. Casteism in society emerged late within the Varna structure. When it did, there was a difference in the broad essentials. In terms of social issues, Orissa is an intriguing example of regional variation.
Q1. Which are the regions that influence Indian history?
The regions that are influential in India’s history as a nation are - the Himalayan Mountains, the Southern peninsula and the Indo-Gangetic plains.
Q2. Why is the regional history of India important?
It is a pivotal part of history because it showcases the truth that life is determined by the places we live in. It is also an example of how the geographical location we are situated in can be a huge determinant of the way we live our lives and how traditions are born out of it.
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