Hindu philosophy includes the ideologies, value systems, and beliefs of Hinduism that surfaced in Ancient India, including six systems (shad-darshana): Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. Darshana (Viewpoint or perspective) is the Indian term for philosophy, derived from the Sanskrit root drish (to see, to experience). These are the Astika (theistic) philosophical customs that concede the Vedas as an influential and significant body of wisdom. In early and medieval India, philosophies that shared conceptual frameworks but denied the Vedas were known as Nastika (heterodox or non-orthodox) Indian philosophies. Buddhism, Jainism, Charvaka, Ajivika, and other Nastika Indian philosophies are examples.
In Karnataka, the majority of the population practice Hinduism. In this region, the 3 major schools of Vedanta Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta, Vishishtadvaita, and Dvaita, flourished. Karnataka is where Dvaita Madhvacharya was invented. Advaita Adi Shankara established the first of his four mathas in Sringeri, Karnataka. Vishishtadvaita Ramanuja is a Sri Sampradaya saint who fled repression by the Shaiva Chola dynasty of Tamil Nadu. He first lived in Tondanur before moving to Melukote, where he constructed the Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple and a well-organized matha. Hoysala Vishnuvardhana was his benefactor. Udupi, Shringeri, Gokarna, and Melukote are widely recognized Sanskrit and Vedic educational centers.
Advaita Vedanta is the earliest surviving tradition of the orthodox Hindu school Vedanta and a Hindu sadhana, a path of spiritual practice and expertise. Advaita (literally "non-secondness," but generally deemed as "nondualism," and frequently attributed to monism) represents the belief that Brahman alone is ultimately real, while the transitory phenomenal universe is an illusionary presence (Maya) of Brahman. According to this viewpoint, Atman, the perceiving self, and Atman-Brahman, the highest Self and Absolute Reality are indistinguishable. The jivatman, or individual self, is merely a reflection or restriction of the singular Atman in a plethora of evident physical bodies.
Vishishtadvaita is a widely known school of Hindu philosophy within the Vedanta school. VishishtAdvaita is a non-dualistic discipline of Vedanta philosophy. It is non-dualism of the eligible collective, in which Brahman is viewed as the Supreme Reality alone, but is marked by plurality. It is also known as competent monism, qualified non-dualism, or attributive monism. It is a Vedanta philosophy school that believes that all diversification is subsumed by an underpinning unification.
Tattvavada, also referred to as Dvaita Vedanta, is one of the prominent disciplines of the Hindu Vedanta tradition. The Dvaita Vedanta sub-discipline, also goes by the names Bhedavda, Bimbapratibimbavda, Prnabrahmavda, and Svatantra-Advitiya-Brahmavda. It was established by the theorist Madhvacharya. The Dvaita Vedanta school of thought holds that God and independent souls (jivatman) exist as distinct realities, with Vishnu being separate and souls being completely reliant on him. The difference between The Dvaita school and the other 2 significant sub-disciplines of Vedanta, Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara, is in their contradictory ideologies of the human soul and the Atman.
Q1. Who are the authors of the Vedanta texts?
Advaita Vedanta, by Gaudapada and revised a year later by Adi Shankara, advocates non-dualism and monotheism. According to these texts, Brahman is considered to be the only everlasting transcendental reality, as well as the independent Atman.
Q2. What is the foundational belief of Vedanta?
Vedanta is a philosophical school spoken of in the Vedas, India's oldest religious texts. Its central message is that our true nature is divine. Every being contains God, the underpinning reality. Religion is thus a quest for self-awareness, an exploration of the God inside us.
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